Each side of the heart has two valves, one on each side. The heart-to-body valve is the aortic valve, which is the left heart’s primary outflow valve. When the left ventricle contracts to pump blood out, the aortic valve opens, and it shuts between heartbeats to prevent blood from returning to the heart.
Three leaflets (flaps) on the aortic valve open and close to regulate blood flow, allowing it to flow throughout your body. This disease of the aortic valve happens when it doesn’t seal tightly enough (aortic regurgitation or insufficiency) or when it becomes overly tight (aortic regurgitation) (aortic stenosis).
What is referred to as aortic valve surgery?
Surgery to replace or repair an aortic valve heals an aortic valve that isn’t working properly, such as an aortic valve replacement. Left ventricle to the aorta valve allows blood to pass from the left lower chamber of heart to the aorta, the body’s major artery. The aorta is responsible for distributing blood throughout the body’s many organs.
Why is aortic valve replacement surgery performed?
Helps the heart pump blood out to the rest of the body by way of the aortic valves. The aortic valve doesn’t work properly in someone with aortic valve disease:
Aortic valve regurgitation occurs when the valve fails not seal entirely, allowing blood to flow backwards rather than forwards.
Heart chambers can’t pump blood out of the body because the aortic valve opening isn’t formed correctly or is too tiny. In order to push blood through the stiff (stenotic) valve, the heart has to work harder to pump blood.
Regurgitation and stenosis can occur simultaneously in aortic valves.
The heart can be injured if the valves don’t open and close appropriately. One of the causes of heart failure is an issue with the heart valves.
Various types of aortic valve replacement surgery:
Mechanical Valve Replacement:
The natural valve is replaced by a mechanical man-made valve constructed of strong, long-lasting materials. In mechanical heart valves, the two leaflets operate as a ‘unidirectional mechanism,’ ensuring that blood flows in just one direction from the ventricle to the aorta, with no possibility of backflow. This is known as a bi-leaflet design.
Younger people are more likely to benefit from this treatment method. The term “autograft” refers to the technique of using a patient’s pulmonary valve to replace the damaged aortic valve. A human-donor pulmonary valve replaces the autograft later on and is referred to as a homograft. Procedures like this one allow patients to have their heart valves replaced in a way that allows them to grow with their bodies. Reach out to the best aortic valve replacement surgeons to undergo the procedure without any risk.
Tissue Valve / Bioprosthetic Aortic Valve Replacement:
This procedure is known as a Bovine Aortic Valve Replacement, or a Porcine Aortic Valve Replacement, when tissue from a cow’s heart is used as a replacement valve. A medical method is used to ensure that the body does not reject these tissues. This treatment has the advantage of reducing the requirement for long-term administration of blood thinners.
An aortic valve operation known as Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation is used to treat aortic valve stenosis. Through the femoral artery, a catheter is inserted and advanced to the aortic valve. An incision in the chest wall or the apex of the heart can also be used to reach the valve. The old valve is removed and replaced with a new one, which allows blood flow and function to be restored.
Who is the right candidate for aortic valve replacement surgery?
The severity of your symptoms will play a big role in determining whether you need an Aortic Valve Repair or an Aortic Valve Replacement. Taking into consideration your age, overall health, and any heart issues or complications you may have, your aortic valve doctor will decide on the best course of therapy.
Repairing a heart valve if the problem isn’t too serious reduces the danger of the body rejecting the procedure and infection. It also lessens the necessity of blood-thinning drugs following a heart valve replacement. Before recommending any treatment, the doctor will perform a complete evaluation of your heart’s health and function.
Open-heart surgery or minimally invasive approaches can be used for these operations. There is less chance of problems, scars, pain, and recovery time with minimally invasive procedures than with more standard ones. Speak to your doctor to get a brief understanding of the cost of valve replacement surgery.
The diagnostic procedures to identify various aortic valve abnormalities:
In order to determine whether you have aortic valve disease, your doctor will analyze your symptoms, perform a physical exam, and listen to your heart for a murmur.
There may be a murmur during the exam, which indicates turbulence in the flow of blood across an irregular valve.
When an echocardiography is performed, a doctor can examine the heart valves to assess the extent and likely cause of the aortic valve disease.
Transthoracic echocardiograms, in which a probe with gel is put on the chest skin to transmit pictures, are sufficient for seeing the valve in the majority of patients. Stenosis can be seen more clearly when the test is paired with exercise or IV medication infusion.
It may be necessary to perform a trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) to better view the valve. A TEE can be performed as an outpatient.
How successful is aortic valve replacement surgery?
Aortic valve disease treatment is a relatively successful procedure, with a 94% success rate. Patient health and age both influence these rates.
Results after the aortic valve replacement:
It’s up to your doctor to advise you whether it’s safe to resume daily activities like working, driving, and exercising after aortic valve repair or aortic valve replacement surgery.
When it comes to keeping an eye on your heart’s state, you’ll need to have regular checks. Aortic valve imaging studies may be performed to ensure proper functioning.
Maintaining a heart-healthy lifestyle is critical following heart valve treatment. The lifestyle changes may be recommended by your doctor for better recovery. An injection of a foam sclerosant is used to seal a blood artery in the process. As a result, more regular blood flow is achieved as the blood is redirected through healthy veins.